Piping Code and Standard Question

19 Agu

Diambil dari berbagai macam sumber dan forum
1. Pipeline : SNI 3474 VS ISO 13623+DNV-OS-F101
2. Piping : ASME B31.1 VS 31.3 VS 31.4 VS B31.8
3. Welding : AWS D1.1 VS EN ISO 15607 (Ref 156614-1)
 Pertanyaan Sederhana Piping Engineering.
*Tersedia isometric dwg
**Tersedia kawat
1st InstructionMemvisualisasikan 3D iso dwg dengan kawat yng tersedia,
2nd InstructionProperties, dimension dll
 interview piping
  1. What is the Piping Code for Design of piping systems in Process Piping, Power Piping?
–          B31.1
–           ASME B31.4 & B31.1
–          Process Piping : B31.3 ; Power Piping : B31.1
  1. What is the difference between Pipe and Tube?
-Pipe is identified by NB and thickness is defined by Schedule whereas Tube is identified by OD
–  tube is with smaller size & thickness than pipe. used for instrument components. or for venting/draining use.
– Thickness…in B36.10 and B36.19 covers the thickness for Pipe..mean while for the Tube….i don’t know ;p
  1. What is NB and OD?
–          From the size 14” and onwards NB = OD of pipe.
–          NB = normal bore. regular dimension of pipe diameter. OD = outside diameter.
  1. From which size onwards NB of pipe equal to OD?
–          From the size 14” and onwards NB = OD of pipe.
–          14″ and above
–          (12Inch and Below NB, 14Inch and above OD
  1. Can you remember what is the OD of the following pipe without looking to the book? 1/2 in 3/4 in 1 in 2 in 3 in 4 in 6 in 8 in 10 in 12 in
–          1/2 in (don’t know) 3/4 in (don’t know 1 in (don’t know 2 in (60mm) 3 in (89mm) 4 in (114mm) 6 in(168mm) 8 in (234mm) 10 in (273mm) 12 in (323mm)
  1. When do we use Eccentric Reducer and Concentric Reducer?
–          I Eccentric reducers = Pump suction to avoid Cavitation, To maintain elevation (BOP) in rack. ii. Concentric reducers = Pump discharge, vertical pipeline etc
–          when we want to avoid liquid or gas trapping inside the flow
–          Ecc Red normally used in suction pump and pipe rack. Con Red can be used in vertical Pipe)
  1. Why can’t we use Concentric Reducer at pump suction ? Explain.
–          Cause Air pockets may form if concentric reducer is used at pump suction, which results in Cavitation, and cause damage to Pump. To avoid this problem, Eccentric Reducer with Flat Side Up (FSU)is used in Pump Suction
–          as answer at no. 6, there will be liquid trap, then this will produce hammer or hard vibration
–          the reason is to avoid air trap in suction line)
  1.  What is the different between Machine Bolt and Stud Bolt?
–          Machine bolt has a head on one side and nut on other side but stud bolt have nuts on both sides.
–          guessing…. stud bolt is used to install two flanges. stud bolt can be tightened from two side.
  1. When do we need Dampener, Expansion Joint and Mechanical Snubber? and Why?
–          guessing…. dampener & mech snubber are used when calculation meet unstable supporting.
–          Expansion Joint can be used in very limited space. Basically it will absorb thermal Expansion of the pipe. Application : Piping around Pump. As my understanding dampener and Snubber is used to reduced the piping vibration (CMIIW)
  1. Do you know the rule of thumb for piping stress analysis around the pump? Please describe
–          nope. i know only the design criteria of piping system around pump..
  1. 11. Do you know the rule of thumb for piping stress analysis around compressors, turbine and heat exchanger? Please describe.
  2. 12. Do you know the rule of thumb for piping stress analysis aroound tower or pressure vessel? Please describe.
–          check of piping settlement between header line and tank/vessel nozzle
  1. 13. What is Steam Tracing?
–          same as heat insulation. to keep the delta temperature inside the pipe.
–          steam tracing is a steam line which is used to maintain the temperature of the fluid in the main line. From the steam header, basically we will design distribution manifold for the steam tracing, and after specific distance we have to collect the condensate and provide new steam tracing line for the main line. The condensate can be open or close system. If it is open system then the condensate will be drain-off, if it is close system the condensate will be routed back to condensate header for recycling)
  1. 14. Why Full Bore Pipe is using in connecting pipeline of launcher?
–          in order to avoid locking-trip of pigging
  1. 15. When checking Piping Stress Sketch, what parameter you normaly need to check?
–          a. line routing & number b. dimensions & support locations c. design/operating temperature & pressure d. pipe specification e. code & standard
–          Pipe properties, des and ope condition, pipe route
  1. 16. What Code you normaly use for checking the Nozzle load on Compressors, Turbine, Heat Exchanger, Pump, Air Cooler?
–           Do you mean standard ?  TurbineàAPI Std 611 = NEMA SM23  Centrifugal CompressoràAPI Std 617  Reciprocating CompressoràAPI Std 618  Air Fin CooleràAPI Std 661  PumpàAPI Std 610
  1. 17. What is the ANSI/ASME Code for dimensional Steel Flanges and Fittings?
–           ANSI B16.9
–          Flange 24Inch and below : ASME B16.5 ; 26inch and larger ASME B16.47 Fittings : ASME B16.11)
  1. 18. Name the Flange Facing
–          Raised-Face, Flat-Face & Ring-type Joint
–          (Rise Face, Flat Face, and Ring Joint).
  1. 19. Do you know the flange facing called as AARH?
  2. 20. If you would like to make a branch connection, from which side pipe normaly take the branch connection?
–          gas, vertical 90deg. liquid, horizontal 90deg
–           from top; For liquid àFor gas or vapour from side
  1. 21. Control Valve. What kind of support arangement on Control Valve?
–          put supports closer to the valve. add guide on both supports. add stopper on one of the supports
–          2 support for control valve, one of them is fix, while the other is slide (can be guided)
  1. 22. Why do wee need to provide HPV (High Point Vent) and LPD (Low Point Drain) in Piping?
–          to avoid hammer. this usually happening in pocket line
  1. 23. Do you know about Weldolet, Sockolet? Please Explain.
–          weldolet connects header & branch, welded on the surface, with no pipe branch plug into inside pipe; than that is used in sockolet
–          weldolet connects brach and header for buttweld pipe (BE) and the size 2″ and above (common) and sockolet for socket welded pipe (PE) and the size 2″ and under. (pl. correction)
–          Weldolet is fitting for Butt End Pipe, while sockolet is fitting for Plain End Pipe ( Brancing )
  1. 24. What is the normal upstream and downstream straight length of orifice flow meter?
–          5D – 10D ?
–          That’s depend on the Beta ratio of the orifice plate. But normally we used the biggest beta ratio ( more safe ). 20D for downstream and 5D for upstream
  1. 25. What is composite flange?
–          flange made from non-metal material ?
  1. 26. Do you know about Insulated Joint? Pleas explain.
–          Insulated joint is used when metallic underground pipe connected to metallic aboveground pipe (connected by flanges). The purpose is to isolate the Cathodic Protection current so that the current is not flowing on above ground metallic pipe.
  1. 27. What are insulating gasket kits?
  2. 28. Have you done the analysis of Jacketed Piping? What do you normaly need to consider during analysis?
  3. 29. What do you need to take into account when performing stress analysis around Tank?
–          pipe settlement. (data of land-lowering around tank.)
–          The settlement of the ground due to tank weight
  1. 30. What is the relation between Brinnell Hardness Number and Rockwell Hardness Number?
  2. 31. What is the minimum distance between two welds in a pipe?
–          as maximum pipe long per piece ? 6m ?
–          the minimum distance is 50mm (2″) after welding. (pl. correction)
–          5times of the Thickness or 50mm which is the larger
  1. 32. During fabrication, you observed that one samll crack has appeared on a fresh plate, what type of measure you will take to obtain desired quality with minimum wastage?
  2. 33. Describe the different types of destructive and non-destructive tests?
–          same as no. 32
–          Destructive Test: a) Tensile test, we put axial tensile force to the specimen until it is failure b) hardness test, hard to describe, c) bending test, by using bending machine, we bend the specimen
–          Non-Destructive: a) PE, using penetrate liquid b) MT, can be used for magnetic metallic c) RT, Radio graphic Testing d) UT,Ultra sonic test
  1. 34. What is PWHT? Why is it required?
–          Post Weld Heat Treatment
–          PWHT is a stress relieve process by using heat after the welding activity. It is required because we need to restore the mechanical properties of the pipe to its original state.
  1. 35. What is the minimum thickness of pipe that requires stress relieving to be done as per ASME B31.3?
–          for carbon steel pipe 19MM, for low alloy pipe 13MM
  1. 36. What is NACE MR-0175 for?
–          it is a standard that is used for sour service line
  1. 37. Hydrotest Pressure. Do you know how to calculate the test Pressure? Please describe.
–          for B31.3 pipe, hydrotest pressure = 1.5 x MAOP/MAWP for rating 300 & below. for 400# & above, use 1.5 x design pressure. for B31.8 pipe, HT pressure = 1.1 to 1.5 x design pressure.
  1. 38. Do you know heat exchanger? What fluid in Shell Side and what fluid in Tube Side?
–          hot gas or fire in shell and steam-water in tube
–          On the shell side, there is a cool fluid, Tube side is used for the Hot one.
  1. 39. Do you know Glandless Piston Valves. Where these valves are used?
  2. 40. Have you done estimation of piping system during proposal? How do you do that?
–          by separating first, all line number into critical lines and non-critical ones. then connect all critical lines into a system and made them in amount of calculation numbers.
–          basically during Estimation, we received IFP document from the client. If the document is good, then you will get all the information you need, such as piping layout, plot plan, p&id, line list, specification,ect. On the basis of this IFP Document, we Piping Department prepare the BM and The BQ to estimate how much the material cost and how much the construction cost for Piping activity. After this activity has been finished then we also have to prepare MH estimation for this project. Schedule of the project I think will be done by the Project Management.
  1. 41. Why do we need to do Stress Analysis?
–          1. To ensure that the stresses in piping components in the system are within allowable limits 2. To solve dynamic problems developed due to mechanical vibration, fluid hammer, pulsation, relief valves, etc 3. To solve problems associated due to higher or lower operating temperature such as a) Displacement stress range b) Nozzle loading on connected equipments c) Pipe displacements d) Loads & moments on supporting structure
–           to ensure safety in piping design, in its systems.
–          To ensure that the Pipe System on the plant is in safe condition
  1. 42. What are the steps in piping stress analysis?
–           1. Identify the potential loads that the piping system would encounter during the life of the plant 2. Relate each of these loads to the stresses and strains developed 3. Get the cumulative effect of the potential loads in the system 4. Decide the allowable limits the system can withstand without failure as per code 5. After the system is designed to ensure that the stresses are within safe limits
–           gather all data needed, make pipe stress sketch (put nodal numbers in it) as per critical line list, calculate to analyze, manually (simplified method) or by computer software, reporting.
–          Identification of critical line, preparing the stress sketch as per piping layout, preparing model using software, checking input, analyze the output, give recommendation if the routing is failed
  1. 43. Tell me about the type of the stressess during normal operation?
–          Axial Stresses (Tensile / Compressive), Shear Stresses, Radial Stresses, Hoopes Stresses.
–          primary (sustain) and secondary (thermal)
–          There will be Hoop Stress, Bending Stress, and axial Stress
  1. 44. What do you need to prepare and and then to input into CAESAR II or Autopipe for Stress Analysis?
–          .i) Pipe Size ii) Fluid Temperature iii) Pipe Material iv)Design pressure v)Insulation Thickness vi)Specific gravity vii)Friction coeff. viii) Model
–          Code used, design pressure, design/operating temperature, test pressure, material properties (size, material type, sch./w.t, CA, SY/SC/SH, poisson ratio, pipe density), fluid density, insulation data (type & density), support location, equipment data, environment data.
–          We need to prepare stress sketch and all the pipe properties, such as Line Size, Line Material, Line Class, Ope and Des Temp
  1. 45. What type of loads available in the stresss analysis calculation? Please Explain.
–          sustain load : inside pressure, pipe (incl. valves, flanges, etc.) weight thermal load : ambient, design & operating temperatures
  1. 46. Do you know about Load Cases in Stress Analysis? Please Explain.
–          normal are sustain, operating & expansion load. additional are environtment load & mechanical load.
  1. 47. What is Load Case for Sustained Load, Expansion Load, Stress Range, Occasional Load, Spring?
–          sustain : weight (specific gravity/density) + inside pressure expansion : delta temperature stress range : — i don’t know — occasional : wind, earthquake/seismic, external force, slug/hammer, reaction froce of PSV
  1. 48. What is the failure theory under ASME B31.3?
–          SL (sustain) >< SY
–          SL (sustain) >< Sy
  1. 49. Do you know what type of piping failure during its operation?
  2. 50. What is the desired life cycle for piping during operation?
–          based on ASME B31.3, around 7000 cycles
–          7000cycle?
  1. 51. How to calculate thermal expansion in a pipe?
–          delta L = exp. coeff. x delta T x L
–          By multiplying coefficient of thermal exp to its length
  1. 52. Do you know SIF (Stress Intensification Factor)? Explain and give some examples?
–          stress max value occuring because of material repositioning. ex. : tee, ellbow
–          SIF is a factor to calculate what is the real stress that will be applied to the component due to difference of the component geometric..for example, straight pipe will have SIF 1, if this pipe connected to elbow, the on the elbow the stress will be higher than the pipe even thought the condition is the same, because the elbow SIF is higher (but I don’t know the value
  1. 53. Pipe Support. What is the pipe support span?
–          distance between two pipe supporting point.
–          (Max distance of the support to ensure that the deflection due to dead load is limited by a half inch.)
  1. 54. What is the criteria to determine the span of pipe support?
–          depend on size + wall thk. & fluid density
–          Half inch of the deflection due to dead load)
  1. 55. How do we decide an anchor point at Expansion Loop on pipe rack?
–          near to end of pipe rack.
–          depend on the temperature of the line, higher temp line required shorter distance of the anchor point
  1. 56. What is the steam out condition?
–          Condition when we purging the line for cleaning?
  1. 57. On Heat Exchanger, where do you provide an anchor support and slotted support? and Why?
–          support near to inlet & outlet nozzle should be slotted support. then another one is anchor/fixed support.
–          Anchor point shall be given on the tube bundle side, that is for maintenance reason, when we pull the tube, we want the equipment remaining fix (not moving))
  1. 58. Do you know PTFE on Support? Why we need that?
–          when we don’t want over-force (vertical and/or horizontal) acting at pipe support.
–          when we don’t want over-force (vertical and/or horizontal) acting at pipe support.
–          PTFE or telfon is used to reduce the friction of the support. Then it will affect the nozzle load or any load on the stopper)
  1. 59. Tell me about spring support.Why we need it? And how many type of spring support? Explain as much as you can.
–         Spring support is needed to absorb over load (force) or over displacement occured becuse of restrained-pipe. type of spring : variable & constant variable is used when there is sufficient distance around pipe, so that the spring support can travel thoroughly. this is used for absorp over-force reacted at rigid-type support. constant is used when there is only small dimension of distance. this is used as variable plus stabilize center position of pipe in the system.
–         We need the spring support when during operation, the pipe is in lifting condition, which mean it is not supported properly(if we used normal shoe or others). So, with the spring support, when the pipe is lifting, the spring support will also lifted and make sure that the pipe is supported. But we have to check first if we need the spring support or not. When we remove the lifting support and the sustain case still pass the code, this mean that we don’t need the spring support. Just put normal support and let the pipe lifting. There are 2 type of spring support. Variable Spring support and Constant Spring support)
Note : yng sudah paham, silahkan share dan berbagi dengan rekan2 yang belum paham
Untuk menjadi seorang desainer perpipaan minimal harus tahu tentang (tidak harus dalam urutan ini):
1. cara membaca P & ID, yaitu mengetahui proses plant.
2. drafting practices: yaitu susunan gambar dan proses gambar revisi.
3. pengembangan plot plan.
4. pemahaman dasar cairan dan aliran fluida.
5. bahan dan spesifikasi pipa pipa.
6. penerapan standar perusahaan (company standards): shoes, anchors, guides, base ell supports, dummy legs, dll.
7. penerapan standar klien (client standards): clearances, platforms, operation, maintenance, dll.
8. arti kelas pipa (piping classes), misalnya 150, 300, dll.
9. arti piping schedules dan berat pipa, misalnya sch. 40, 80, dll.
10. koneksi pipa, yaitu threaded, socket-weld, butt weld & flanged dan perlengkapan terkait untuk mencapai hal ini.
11. dasar praktek las dan pengelasan simbologi.
12. jenis valve dan mengapa dan di mana mereka digunakan.
13. berbagai jenis equipment dan fungsi / operasi mereka.
14. bagaimana design pipa dengan berbagai jenis equipment.
15. fungsi dan instalasi yang dibutuhkan dari berbagai jenis instrument.
16. tujuan dan cara membuat dimensi gambar general arrangement.
17. tujuan dan cara membuat isometrik, spool fabrikasi, pengelasan lapangan, dan spool ereksi.
18. desain modul, fabrikasi dan ereksi.
19. pelaksanaan konstruksi.
20. pemahaman dasar tentang stress analysis.
21. kode keamanan dan praktek (Manajemen Keselamatan Proses, keselamatan kerja konstruksi, dll)
Beberapa hal yang Anda harus pahami:
Mendefinisikan lingkup rekayasa Piping cukup sulit. Karena luas: Process piping, off-shore piping, underground piping, sub-sea piping, cross-country piping, Nuclear piping, Mineral industry piping, Lined piping, Low & high temperature piping, dll.
Pentingnya perpipaan Dalam “normal” plant (ada yang dibangun khusus, peralatan biaya tinggi) pipa (desain, rekayasa, ereksi, pengujian, dll) merupakan 30% sampai 45% total biaya plant. Oleh karena itu, jika Anda menggunakan desain yang baik & praktek rekayasa, Anda bisa segera menghemat 5% dari biaya plant (3% tabungan selalu ada). Jika Anda menghitung jumlah ini, pasti besar & karena pentingnya ketepatan harus diberikan kepada perpipaan pada semua tahap.
Pentingnya dan keterbatasan alat canggih pemodelan 3D. Ada banyak software 3D modeling digunakan secara luas dalam industri pipa. PDS, PDMS, Bentley,Cadworx,SP3D,SM3D, dll. Jangan dulu terburu-buru untuk belajar perangkat tersebut. Software tsb sangat baik, tetapi alat yang baik hanya bila operator tahu bagaimana menggunakannya jika anda sudah mahir dalam desain perpipaan.
Beberapa tugas atau disiplin terpisah meliputi
Piping layout & design engineering – Seseorang di department ini disebut “Piping Design Engineer” atau “Piping desainer” .. Jika Anda ingin berada di bidang ini, Anda harus pandai kode Internasional, kemampuan tata letak dengan visi untuk operasi sehari-hari, metode pemeliharaan, ereksi, metode pembongkaran, dll. Bidang ini membutuhkan lebih banyak akal sehat daripada keterampilan teknik. Bidang ini juga mencakup, teknik Pra-bid (engineering Proposal), rekayasa konseptual, teknik dasar dan rekayasa.
Piping stress analysis – Seseorang di department ini disebut “Piping stres Engineer” atau ” Piping flexibility engineer “. Jika Anda ingin berada di bidang ini, Anda harus pandai keterampilan analisa tegangan menggunakan software CAEPIPE, Caesar, Autopipe, dll.
Piping material & specifications engineering – Seseorang di department ini disebut ” Piping Material engineer ” atau “Piping Spec. Engineer “. Jika Anda ingin berada di bidang ini, Anda harus mengerti baik pada bahan & sifat mereka, pengetahuan mendalam tentang kode internasional (ASME / API / ASTM/ ANSI dll), pengetahuan yang baik teknik korosi & pengetahuan yang sangat baik tentang penggunaan yang tepat dari valve & fitting.
Piping fabrication, erection & quality control engineering – Seseorang di department ini disebut “Piping site engineer” atau ” Piping field engineer “. Jika Anda ingin berada di bidang ini, Anda harus baik pada keterampilan kontrol kualitas (NDT / NDE inspeksi), penjadwalan kerja & kemajuan keterampilan pemantauan, berurusan dengan ereksi kontraktor setiap hari, dll.
Jangan berpikir bahwa empat bidang di atas adalah independen. Mereka saling tergantung. Bahkan jika Anda berada di salah satu bidang di atas, Anda perlu tahu semua empat bidang berfungsi dengan baik sebagai insinyur yang handal. Itulah mengapa jangan membuat pikiran untuk hanya mengejar salah satu dari bidang di atas.
2 Komentar

Ditulis oleh pada 19 Agustus 2013 in Rekayasa Kapal


2 responses to “Piping Code and Standard Question

  1. coupon

    17 Oktober 2014 at 7:42 am

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    • Awan-P47

      22 Oktober 2014 at 5:58 am

      You are welcome


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